Male fertility is a complex process. To get your partner pregnant, the following must occur:

  • You must produce healthy sperm.Initially, this involves the growth and formation of the male reproductive organs during puberty. At least one of your testicles must be functioning correctly, and your body must produce testosterone and other hormones to trigger and maintain sperm production.
  • Sperm have to be carried into the semen.Once sperm are produced in the testicles, delicate tubes transport them until they mix with semen and are ejaculated out of the penis.
  • There needs to be enough sperm in the semen.If the number of sperm in your semen (sperm count) is low, it decreases the odds that one of your sperm will fertilize your partner’s egg. A low sperm count is fewer than 15 million sperm per milliliter of semen or fewer than 39 million per ejaculate.
  • Sperm must be shaped correctly and able to move.If the movement (motility) or shape (morphology) of your sperm is abnormal, the sperm may not be able to reach or penetrate your partner’s egg.